On this page we provide you with the mounting evidence of the abortion/breast cancer link. All abstracts were obtained from The National Library of Medicine, an online medical research service. Please visit their site if you would like more information about these particular studies.
Lecture by Dr. Joel Brind on Abortion-Breast Cancer Link (click here)
Abortion/Breast Cancer Risk Graphs (click here)
"Trends and Risk Factors in English Breast Cancer" (click here)
By Patrick Carroll
Director of Research
Pension and Population Research Institute
British Journal of Cancer, Vol 91 Supplement 1 July 2004 page S24
Presented at the British Cancer Research Meeting 2004 in Manchester
"Total Risk Increase" (click here)
Breast Maturity and the Development of Breast Cancer
Russo J, Yun-Fu Hu Xiaoqi Yang, Russo I. Chapter 1. Developmental Cellular and Molecular Basis of Human Breast Cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2000; 27:17-37.
Russo J, Rivera R, Russo IH. "Influence of Age and Parity on the Development of the Human Breast." Breast Cancer Research and Treatment (1992)23:211-218.
Russo J, Reina D, Frederick J, et al. Expression of phenotypical changes by human breast epithelial cells treated with carcinogens in vitro. Cancer Res 1988; 48:2837-2857.
Russo J, Russo IH. Development of the human mammary gland. In Neville MD, Daniel C (ed). The Mammary Gland, Plenum, NY 1987:67-93.
Vorher H. The Breast, Academic, New York 1974:1-18.
Estrogen and Breast Cancer Risk
Henderson BE, et al. Cancer Research 48, 246-253, January 15, 1988.
Bernstein L, Ross R. Endogenous hormones and breast cancer risk. Epidemiol Rev 1993;15:48-62.
Liehr JG. Is estradiol a genotoxic mutagenic carcinogen? Endocrine Rev 2000;21(1):40-54.
Potten CS, Watson RJ, Williams CT, et al. The effect of age and menstrual cycle upon proliferative activity of the normal human breast. Br J Cancer 1988;58:163-168.
Russo IH, Calaf G, Russo J. Hormones and proliferative activity in breast tissue. In Stoll BA (ed). Approaches to Breast Cancer Prevention. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990;35-57.
Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women. JAMA 2002;288:321-33.
"Report on Carcinogens," U.S. National Toxicology Program, December 11, 2002.
Miller K. Estrogen and DNA Damage: The Silent Source of Breast Cancer? Jrnl Natl Cancer Inst, Vol 95, No. 2, 100-102, January 15, 2003.
Segi M, Fukushima I, Fujisaku S, Kurihara M, Saito S, Asano K, Kamoi M. An epidemiological study on cancer in Japan. GANN 1957;48(Suppl):1-63.
Watanabe H, Hirayama T. Epidemiology and clinical aspects of breast cancer. Nippon Rinsho 1968;26:1853-1859 in Japanese.
Dvoirin VV, Medvedev AB. Role of women’s reproductive status in the development of breast cancer. In Tallin: Methods and progress in breast cancer epidemiology research, 1978. Moscow: Oncology Science Center of the USSR Academy of Sciences 1978;pp 53-63, in Russian.
Burany B. Gestational characteristics in women with breast cancer. Jugosl Genekol Opstet 1979;19:237-47, in Serbo-Croatian.
Pike MC, Henderson BE, Casagrande JT, Rosario I, Gray GE. Oral contraceptive use and early abortion as risk factors for breast cancer in young women. Br J Cancer 1981;43:72-76.
Nishiyama F. Epidemiology of breast cancer in Tokushima prefecture. Shikoku Ichi 1982;38: 333-343, in Japanese.
Brinton LA, Hoover R, Fraumeni JF Jr. Reproductive factors in the aetiology of breast cancer. Br J Cancer 1983;47:757-762.
Le M-G, Bachelot A, Doyon F, Kramar A, Hill C. Oral contraceptive use and breast or cervical cancer: preliminary results of a French case-control study. In: Wolff J-P, Scott JS, eds. Hormones and sexual factors in human cancer aetiology. Amsterdam: Elsevier 1984;139-147.
Hirohata T, Shigematsu T, Nomura AMY, Nomura Y, Horie A, Hirohata I. Occurrence of breast cancer in relation to diet and reproductive history: a case-control study in Fukuoka, Japan. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 1985;69:187-190.
Rosenberg L, Palmer JR, Kaufman DW, Strom BL, Schottenfeld D, Shapiro S. Breast cancer in relation to the occurrence and time of induced and spontaneous abortion. Am J Epidemiol 1988;127:981-989.
Rohan T, McMichael AJ, Baghurst PA. A population-based case-control study of diet and breast cancer in Australia. Am J Epidemiol 1988;128:478-489.
Ewertz M, Duffy SW. Risk of breast cancer in relation to reproductive factors in Denmark. Br J Cancer 1988;68:99-104.
Harris B-M L, Eklund G, Meirik O, Rutqvist LE, Wiklund K. Risk of cancer of the breast after legal abortion during first trimester: a Swedish register study. BMJ 1989;299:1430-1432.
Howe HL, Senie RT, Bzduch H, Herzfeld P. Early abortion and breast cancer risk among women under age 40. Int J Epidemiol 1989;18:300-304.
Adami H-O, Bergstrom R, Lund E, Meirik O. Absence of association between reproductive variables and the risk of breast cancer in young women in Sweden and Norway. Br J Cancer 1990;62:122-126.
Parazzini F, La Vecchia C, Negri E. Spontaneous and induced abortions and risk of breast cancer. Int J Cancer 1991;48:816-20.
La Vecchia C, Negri E, Franceschi S, Parazzini F. Long-term impact of reproductive factors on cancer risk. Int J Cancer 1993;53:215-219.
Moseson M, Koenig KL, Shore RE, Pasternak BS. Influence of medical conditions associated with hormones on the risk of breast cancer. Int J Epidemiol 1993;22:1000-1009.
Laing AE, Demenais FM, Williams R, Kissling G, Chen VW, Bonney. GE. Breast cancer risk factors in African-American women: the Howard University Tumor Registry experience. J Natl Med Assoc 1993;85:931-939.
Laing AE, Bonney GE, Adams-Campbell L, et al. Reproductive and lifestyle factors for breast cancer in African American women. Genet Epidemiol 1994;11:A300.
Daling JR, Malone DE, Voigt LF, White E, Weiss NS. Risk of breast cancer among young women: relationship to induced abortion. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994;86:1584-1592.
White E, Malone KE, Weiss NS, Daling JR. Breast cancer among young US women in relation to oral contraceptive use. J Natl Cancer Inst 1994;86:505-514.
Andrieu N, Demenais F. Role of genetic and reproductive factors in breast cancer. Genet Epidemiol 1994;11:A285 (abstract).
Andrieu N, Duffy SW, Rohan TE, Le MG, Luporsi E, Gerber M, Renaud R, Zaridze DG, Lifanova Y, Day NE. Familial risk, abortion and their interactive effect on the risk of breast
cancer—a combined analysis of six case-control studies. Br J Cancer 1995;72:744-751.
Luporsi E, (1988), in Andrieu N, Duffy SW, Rohan TE, Le MG, Luporsi E, Gerber M, Renaud R, Zaridze DG, Lifanova Y, Day NE. Familial risk, abortion and their interactive effect on the risk of breast cancer—a combined analysis of six case-control studies. Br J Cancer 1995;72:744-751.
Lipworth L, Katsouyanni K, Ekborn A, Michels KB, Trichopoulos D. Abortion and the risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Greece. Int J Cancer 1995;61:181-184.
Bu L, Voigt L, Yu Z, Malone K, Daling J. Risk of breast cancer associated with induced abortion in a population at low risk of breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1995;141:S85.
Brinton LA et al. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk among younger women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1995;87:827-835.
Zaridze DG. (1988) in Andrieu N, Duffy SW, Rohan TE, Le MG, Luporsi E, Gerber M, Renaud R, Zaridze DG, Lifanova Y, Day NE. Familial risk, abortion and their interactive effect on the risk of breast cancer—a combined analysis of six case-control studies. Br J Cancer 1995;72:744-751.
Rookus MA, van Leeuwen FE. Breast cancer risk after induced bortion, a Dutch case-control study Am J Epidemiol 1995;141:S54 (abstract 214).
Rookus MA, van Leeuwan FE. Induced abortion and risk for breast cancer: reporting (recall) bias in a Dutch case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996;88:1759-1764.
Newcomb PA, Storer BE, Longnecker MP, Mittendorf R, Greenberg ER, Willett WC. Pregnancy termination in relation to risk of breast cancer. JAMA 1996;275:283-287.
Daling JR, Brinton LA, Voigt LF, et al. Risk of breast cancer among white women following induced abortion. Am J Epidemiol 1996;144:373-380.
Talamini R, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S, et al. The role of reproductive and menstrual factors in cancer of the breast before and after menopause. Eur J Cancer 1996;32A:303-310.
Wu AH, Ziegler RG, Pike MC, et al. Menstrual and reproductive factors and risk of breast cancer in Asian-Americans. Br J Cancer 1996;73:680-686.
Tavani A, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S, Negri E, D’avanao B, Decarli A. Abortion and breast cancer risk. Int J Cancer 1996;65:401-05.
Palmer JR, Rosenberg L, Sowmya Rao R, et al. Induced and spontaneous abortion in relation to risk of breast cancer. Cancer Causes Control 1997;8:841-849.
Melbye M, Wohlfahrt J, Olson JH, Frisch M, Westergaard T, Helweg-Larsen K, Andersen PK. Induced abortion and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 1997;336:81-85.
Marcus PM, Baird DD, Millikan RC, Moorman PG, Qaqish B, Newman B. Adolescent reproductive events and subsequent breast cancer risk. Am J Pub Health 1999;89:1244-1247.
Lazovich D, Thompson JA, Mink PJ, Sellers TA, Anderson KE. Induced abortion and breast cancer risk. Epidemiology 2000;11:76-80.
Tang NC, Weiss NS, Malone KE. Induced abortion in relation to breast cancer among parous women: A birth certificate registry study. Epidemiology 2000;11:177-80.
Newcomb PA, Mandelson MT. A record-based evaluation of induced abortion and breast cancer risk (United States). Cancer Causes Control 2000;11:777-781.
Sanderson M, Shu X-O, Jin F, et al. Abortion history and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai breast cancer study. Amer J Epidemiology 2000;151 (11). (abstract)
Sanderson M, Shu X-O, Jin F, Dai Q, Wen W, Hua Y, Gao Y-T, Zheng W. Abortion history and breast cancer risk: results from the Shanghai breast cancer study. Int J Cancer 2001;92:899-905.
Robertson C, Van Den Donk M, Primic-Zakelj M, MacFarlane T, Boyle P. The association between induced and spontaneous abortion and risk of breast cancer in Slovenian women aged 25-54. Breast 2001;10:291-298.
Goldacre MJ, Kurina LM, Seagroatt V, Yeates. Abortion and breast cancer: a case-control record linkage study. J Epidemiol Community Health 2001;55:336-337.
Carroll P. Pregnancy Related Risk Factors in Female Breast Cancer Incidence. International Congress of Actuaries, Transactions 2002;4:331-75.
Ye Z, Gao DL, Qin Q, Ray RM, Thomas DB. Breast cancer in relation to induced abortions in a cohort of Chinese women. Br J Cancer 2002;87:977-981.
Erlandsson G, Montgomery S, Cnattingius S, et al. Abortions and breast cancer: Record-based case-control study. Int J Cancer 2003;103:676-679.
Mahue-Giangreco M, Ursin G, Sullivan-Halley J, Bernstein L. Induced abortion, miscarriage, and breast cancer risk of young women. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 2003;12:209-214.
Becher H, Schmidt S, Chang-Claude J. Reproductive factors and familial predisposition for breast cancer by age 50 years. A case control family study for assessing main effects and possible gene-environment interaction. Int J Epidemiol 2003;32:38-50.
Paoletti X, Clavel-Chapelon F, E3N group. Induced and spontaneous abortion and breast cancer risk: Results from the E3N cohort study. Int J Cancer 2003;106:270-276.
Palmer J, Wise L, Adams-Campbell LL, Rosenberg L. A prospective study of induced abortion and breast cancer in African-American women. Cancer Causes and Control 2004;15:105-111.
Carroll P. Trends and Risk Factors in English Breast Cancer. British Journal of Cancer 2004;91 (Suppl. 1):S24 (abstract)P2. Carroll’s text and graphs available online at: www.AbortionBreastCancer.com.
Carroll P. Trends and risk factors in British female breast cancer. JSM 2005 American Statistical Association. Statistics in Epidemiology. pp 2511-2519.
Brewster D, Stockton D, Dobbie R, Bull D, Beral D. Risk of breast cancer after miscarriage or induced abortion: a Scottish record linkage case-control study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2005;59:283-287.
Reeves G , Kan S, Key T, Tjønneland A, Olsen A, et al. Breast cancer risk in relation to abortion: Results from the EPIC study. International Journal of Cancer 2006;119;7: 1741 – 1745.
Rosenblatt KA, Gao DL, Ray RM, Rowland MR, Nelson ZC, Wernli KJ, Li W, Thomas, DB. Induced abortions and the risk of all cancers combined and site-specific cancers in Shanghai. Cancer Causes Control. 2006 Dec;17(10):1275-1280.
Michels K, Xue Fei, Colditz G., Willett W. Induced and Spontaneous Abortion and Incidence of Breast Cancer Among Young Women. Arch Int Med 2007;167:814-820.
Carroll, P. The breast cancer epidemic: modeling and forecasts based on abortion and other risk factors." J Am Phys Surg Vol. 12, No. 3 (Fall 2007) 72-78. Available at: <http://www.jpands.org/vol12no3/carroll.pdf>.
Carroll P. The Breast Cancer Epidemic. The Actuary (November 2007) p. 30-31. Available at: <http://www.the-actuary.org.uk/pdfs/07_11_30-31.pdf>.
Naieni KH, Ardalan A, Mahmoodi M, Motevalian A, Yahyapoor Y, et al. Risk factors of breast cancer in North of Iran: A case-control in Mazandaran Province. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2007;8;395-398. Available at: http://www.apocp.org/cancer_download/Volume8_No3/395-398%20c_Naieni%204.pdf
DeLellis Henderson K, Sullivan-Halley J, Reynolds P, Horn-Ross P, Clarke C, et al. Incomplete pregnancy is not associated with breast cancer risk: the California Teachers Study. Contraception 2008;77:391-396.
Lin Jie, Yu Jian-feng. A case-control study on risk factors of breast cancer among women in Cixi. Zhejiang Journal of Preventive Medicine 2008. In Chinese. Available at: http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZYFX200806003.htm
Ozmen V, Ozcinar B, Karanlik H, Cabioglu N, Tukenmez M, et al. Breast cancer risk factors in Turkish women – a University Hospital based nested case control study. World J of Surg Oncol 2009;7:37. Available at: http://wjso.com/content/7/1/37.
Xing P, Li J, Jin F. A case-control study of reproductive factors associated with subtypes of breast cancer in Northeast China. Medical Oncology, e-publication online September 2009. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19771534.
Dolle J, Daling J, White E, Brinton L, Doody D, et al. Risk factors for triple-negative breast cancer in women under the age of 45 years. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(4)1157-1166. Available at: http://www.abortionbreastcancer.com/download/Abortion_Breast_Cancer_Epid_Bio_Prev_2009.pdf
Khachatryan L, Scharpf R, Kagan S. Influence of diabetes mellitus type 2 and prolonged estrogen exposure on risk of breast cancer among women in Armenia. Health Care for Women International 2011;32:953-971. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07399332.2011.569041